I will highlight each application development platform and provide a brief review.
Visual Studio System 2008
This application development platform is a member of the VS studio 2008. The latter has different versions, which enables you to do a lot of different things. For example, if your goal is source control then you should consider Team foundation server. You can use the latter to do much more than VSS on a much larger scale.
If you have a server and what to set up an SQL Server running a database of less than 5000 records then consider the SQL server from Microsoft. You can get the express version for free, which would be enough for a database of less than 5000 records.
If you are so much into Microsoft you can also consider other Microsoft based solutions like the VB.net
There is a lot of debate about the importance of learning C before proceeding to c ++ Java and other higher level languages. Well I personally feel that is not absolutely essential but generally it is good to learn any programming language. The truth is though C is not for learning c ++ java.
Deciding on what to do depends on your goal. For example, if you are interested in object oriented programming then you should start with C ++ and then gradually move to Java. Do not bother yourself with C.
You can learn to use Java in order to apply it to commercial sites. You can do a lot of various things like creating pop ups, drop down menus and more. It is basically a client side scripting language, which you can use in combination with HTML. This is why it is recommended that before Java you should learn HTML.