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C++

Programming Lanaguge

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C++ is an enhanced version of C language. It is a general purpose programming language that includes everything that is part of C and also has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features. C++ is viewed by many as the best language for creating large-scale applications.

C++ appeared in 1983. Designed by Biarne Stroustrup. C++ stably released in 2011. The design of C++ was influenced by C language and some other languages. After C++ appeared, it has influenced a lot to make famous languages like Perl, LPC, Java, PHP etc.

Main Features

There are many wonderful features in C++. The main feature of C++ is that it supports Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) concepts. There are main three concepts of OOP:

  1. ENCAPSULATION
  2. POLYMORPHISM
  3. INHERITANCE

We will discuss these features later. Because OOP is the main concept of C++, understanding object-oriented thought is the first rule for learning C++. This is important because not only C++, but every new style or famous language follows the object-oriented concept. We will have a full lesson on Object-Oriented Programming.

Other Features

Let’s look at the other features of C++:

  1. C++ is an open ISO (International Organization for Standardization) language
  2. It is a compiled language
  3. It is a strongly typed language
  4. It supports both manifest and inferred typing
  5. It supports both static and dynamic type checking
  6. It is portable
  7. It is upwards compatible with C
  8. It has incredible library support

C++ Library

C++ Standard Library is a collection of classes and functions. The function of C++ Standard Library includes several generic containers, function objects, generic streams, supports for some language features, and much more. Features of the C++ Standard Library are declared within std namespace.

A namespace is simply a declarative region. The purpose of a namespace is to localize the names of identifiers to avoid name collisions. So, how it will be written on the code?

After writing this statement, you don’t need to worry if you’re working with an old-style header or you’re working with a new-style one. The compiler will automatically detect necessary things.

Header File

A header file is generally used to define interfaces within an application. A header file controls your whole code. You can modify your source code whenever you want, but the header file wouldn’t change. The features of header file are given below:

  1. Class description and inheritance hierarchy
  2. Class data members and types
  3. Class methods

Please, don’t mix the Header file and Library. As a beginner it maybe confusing. Simply put, the header file is just the way you can control your code, whereas the library is a collection of code that you want to make available to the program. It’s the fundamental difference between “interface” and “implementation”; the interface (header) tells you how to call some functionality (without knowing how it works), while the implementation (library) is the actual functionality.
A complete list of header files can be found here

Uses of C++

There’s no need- or time!- to learn all possible uses of C++. C++ is used widely all over the world. Some of common uses are given below:

Adobe Systems: All major applications of Adobe Systems are developed in C++:

  1. Photoshop & ImageReady
  2. Illustrator
  3. Acrobat
  4. InDesign
  5. GoLive
  6. Frame (mostly C, some C++)

Apple: OS X is written in a mix of language, but a few important parts are C++. The two most interesting are:

  1. The iPod user interface (uses Pixo application framework written in C++)
  2. Frameworks: There are three major C++ application frame works developed for Macintosh:
  • Apple’s MacApp (some MacApp applications)
  • Symantec’s Think Class Libraries
  • Metrowerks’ PowerPlant

There are also a number of smaller (in market share) frameworks that have been developed

Facebook: Several high-performance and high-reliability components

GCC: GCC now uses C++ as its implementation language .The GNU Compiler Collection includes front ends for C, C++.

Google: World’s most famous search engine Google uses C++ for their :

  1. Chromium browser.
  2. Google file system.
  3. MapReduce large cluster data processing

HP: Here is a tiny fraction of HP’s C++ apps:

  1. C, C++, Fortran90 compilers, and linker for the new HP IA64 platform (more than 1 million lines of C++ code)
  2. SAM (HP’s system management utility)
  3. Some of the networking libraries in HP-UX
  4. Java VM core
  5. Parts of Openview

Mozilla: Firefox browser and Thunderbird mail client (open source)

MySQL: MySQL Server (about 250,000 lines of C++) and MySQL Cluster. Arguably the world’s most popular open source database

Compilers

Some of the most popular compilers of C++ include:

  1. C++ Builder
  2. Turbo C++ Explorer
  3. C++ Compiler
  4. Borland C++
  5. CodeWarrior
  6. NetBeans
  7. Open64
  8. Visual C++

A complete list of compilers can be found here

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